By John Bell, Moshe Machover
A complete one-year graduate (or complicated undergraduate) path in mathematical common sense and foundations of arithmetic. No prior wisdom of common sense is needed; the publication is acceptable for self-study. Many routines (with tricks) are integrated.
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Additional info for A Course in Mathematical Logic
Dichotomous, in that it takes value 1 if agreement i is of the R&D type and 0 otherwise (R&D).
Conversely, a switch to RU-ownership may decrease expenditures. 3 Who should finance the innovation? 1 Cormancing by private outside investors Our analysis has overlooked the fact that private investors that do not directly benefit from the innovation, namely banks, venture capitalists or parent companies do often contribute to the financing of research units. A first question is, why can't the customer itself provide cash to the research unit in exchange for equity shares in RU? The answer to this question turns out to be quite simple and relies on the following irrelevance argument: Suppose that C is given (1-a) shares in RU.
The value of the innovation for the customer is V>O. Let e denote the noncontractible (research) effort supplied by RU and E denote the investment provided by C, both at a linear cost. We allow E to be either contractible (monetary investment) or noncontractible (as is often the case for the supply of proprietary technology or demand information). For the moment we also assume that the customer faces no cash constraint. The probability of making the innovation is assumed to be increasing, strictly concave, and separable in (e, E), namely: p(e, E) =q(e)+r(E).
A Course in Mathematical Logic by John Bell, Moshe Machover